The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 05 September 2022 and Monday 12 September 2022.

898,201 Misinforming Tweets
New:+33,955 Trend:+2,423
79,088 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+434 Trend:+290
4,366 Fact-checks
140 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 05 September 2022 and Monday 12 September 2022, 33,955 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 255 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from with an increase of +33,905 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was with a change of +2,439 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was with a change of -24 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is with a total of 683,438 URL shares and the least popular domain is with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total VoxCheck 33905 31466 683141 14 0 14 Taiwan FactCheck Center 6 5 4069 LeadStories 6 1 8936 6 1 7 5 0 5 Correctiv 3 2 1128 LeadStories 2 1 2462 1 16 17 LeadStories 1 1 6655

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total 309 0 309 11 0 11 10 0 10 8 0 8 7 1 225 7 0 38 7 0 7 7 0 7 7 0 7 6 0 6

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 140 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from (388 fact-checks) and the least from Verify Sy (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from VoxCheck (350) followed by LeadStories (255) and AFP fact checking (207) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Country in eastern europe. 434 123 151634
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 342 21 25273
Novokuznetsk City in kemerovo oblast, russia. 316 0 316
Germany Country in central europe. 33 19 14446
Europe Continent. 32 10 36004
United States of America Country located mainly in north america. 25 29 34315
Moscow Capital and most populous city of russia. 19 8 10724
Soviet Union Communist state in eurasia from 1922 to 1991. 17 5 8932
Earth Third planet from the sun in the solar system. 14 1 21367
Berlin Federal state, capital and largest city of germany. 14 1 155

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Volodymyr Zelenskyy Sixth and current president of ukraine. 345 31 52392
Vladimir Lenin Russian politician, communist theorist and the founder of the soviet union. 316 0 319
Vladimir Putin President of russia (1999–2008, 2012–present). 18 11 57160
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 11 1 6665
Antony Blinken American government official and 71th u.s. Secretary of state. 8 0 214
Sergey Shoygu Russian political figure. 8 0 140
Pat Buchanan American politician and commentator. 8 0 8
Donald Trump President of the united states from 2017 to 2021. 7 2 917
Steven L. Johnson Researcher. 7 1 225
Dmitry Medvedev Former president and prime minister of russia. 6 1 10

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.