The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 01 August 2022 and Monday 08 August 2022.

701,613 Misinforming Tweets
New:+8,829 Trend:+1,722
77,775 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+171 Trend:-91
4,227 Fact-checks
140 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 01 August 2022 and Monday 08 August 2022, 8,829 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 249 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from with an increase of +8,561 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was with a change of +1,582 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was with a change of -37 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is with a total of 487,774 URL shares and the least popular domain is with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total VoxCheck 8561 6979 487477 EFE Verifica 219 0 219 Correctiv 10 8 1021 LeadStories 7 3 8914 LeadStories 6 25 6642 LeadStories 4 3 16332 4 0 4 Taiwan FactCheck Center 3 1 4041 2 5 1501 2 0 2

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total 34 0 34 20 0 20 15 9 24 11 0 11 7 0 7 6 5 780 6 0 30 6 0 6 4 0 4 3 16 19

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 140 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from VoxCheck (350 fact-checks) and the least from Verify Sy (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from (335) followed by LeadStories (255) and AFP fact checking (201) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Country in eastern europe. 386 253 151745
Germany Country in central europe. 253 56 10791
Warsaw Capital and largest city of poland. 220 8 1059
Spain Sovereign state in southwestern europe with territories in the mediterranean sea, the atlantic ocean and northern africa. 219 18 5184
Madrid Capital and largest city of spain. 219 17 2413
Benalmádena Town and municipality in málaga, spain. 219 0 219
United States of America Country located mainly in north america. 69 57 34035
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 60 93 24461
Moscow Capital and most populous city of russia. 34 17 10624
Europe Continent. 25 79 35541

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Vladimir Solovyov Russian philosopher. 219 0 219
António Guterres Secretary-general of the united nations. 15 9 461
Vladimir Putin President of russia (1999–2008, 2012–present). 14 51 58058
Volodymyr Zelenskyy Sixth and current president of ukraine. 14 24 52687
Boris Yeltsin Soviet and russian politician, 1st president of russia (1931-2007). 8 5 904
Bill Clinton 42nd president of the united states. 7 6 1015
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 6 25 6642
President of the United States Head of state and head of government of the united states of america. 6 5 4936
Mikhail Gorbachev President of the soviet union from 1990 to 1991. 6 5 802
George H. W. Bush President of the united states from 1989 to 1993. 6 5 780

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.