The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 18 July 2022 and Monday 25 July 2022.

211,173 Misinforming Tweets
New:+47 Trend:-121
77,115 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+99 Trend:-299
3,813 Fact-checks
138 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 18 July 2022 and Monday 25 July 2022, 47 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 227 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from with an increase of +18 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was with a change of +4 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was with a change of -110 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is with a total of 154,827 URL shares and the least popular domain is with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total LeadStories 13 12 6611 8 110 727 LeadStories 5 7 16325 Taiwan FactCheck Center 4 7 4037 LeadStories 4 3 2442 3 2 1494 LeadStories 3 0 7584 LeadStories 2 4 8904 Istinomer 1 1 4387 LeadStories 1 1 1001

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total 11 33 44 6 2 184 6 1 152 5 0 81 4 2 79 4 1 769 3 8 23 3 4 174 3 1 522 3 0 32

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 138 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from (295 fact-checks) and the least from Verify Sy (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from LeadStories (255) followed by AFP fact checking (199) and (138) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 90 351 145433
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 28 61 33886
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 25 176 23573
Europe Continent on earth, mainly on the northeastern quadrant, i.e. north-western eurasia. 21 51 34530
Moscow Capital and most populous city of russia. 18 37 10685
Soviet Union Federal socialist state in eastern europe and northern asia (1922–1991). 18 27 8473
Italy Sovereign state in southern europe. 16 33 1605
Germany Country in central europe. 14 69 10520
Poland Sovereign state in central europe. 13 28 5320
worldwide Published or operating in multiple or all jurisdictions on earth; special value for “place of publication” (p291) and “operating area” (p2541). 13 19 12949

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 26 27 53996
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 13 12 6611
Leonardo da Vinci Italian renaissance polymath (1452-1519). 11 33 44
Volodymyr Zelenskyy Sixth and current president of ukraine. 10 39 51869
Donald Trump 45th and current president of the united states. 10 8 1862
President of the United States Head of state and head of government of the united states of america. 9 17 5798
Joe Biden President-elect of the united states, former vice president (2009–2017). 8 20 4161
Boris Yeltsin Soviet and russian politician, 1st president of russia (1931-2007). 6 10 891
Alexei Navalny Russian lawyer, politician and anti-corruption activist. 6 2 205
Steven L. Johnson Researcher. 6 2 184

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.