The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 27 June 2022 and Monday 04 July 2022.

210,775 Misinforming Tweets
New:+890 Trend:-212
76,174 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+327 Trend:-12
3,813 Fact-checks
138 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 27 June 2022 and Monday 04 July 2022, 890 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 226 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from with an increase of +441 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was with a change of +29 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was with a change of -184 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is with a total of 154,641 URL shares and the least popular domain is with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total 441 625 1066 328 0 328 LeadStories 50 245 16298 LeadStories 9 19 6569 8 41 593 7 3 1486 6 0 6 LeadStories 5 9 8890 LeadStories 4 5 2416 Taiwan FactCheck Center 4 3 3987

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total 39 0 39 25 0 25 16 0 16 15 0 25 13 0 30 10 0 11 10 0 10 9 26 71 9 16 216 8 28 160

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 138 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from (295 fact-checks) and the least from Verify Sy (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from LeadStories (255) followed by AFP fact checking (199) and (138) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Italy Sovereign state in southern europe. 334 0 1554
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 234 349 144674
Germany Country in central europe. 65 18 10410
Belarus Sovereign state in eastern europe. 60 6 6903
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 57 66 23328
Poland Sovereign state in central europe. 49 41 5209
Donetsk Capital city of donetsk oblast in estern ukraine. 48 30 2082
Mahilioŭ City in belarus. 43 0 43
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 36 32 33740
Europe Continent on earth, mainly on the northeastern quadrant, i.e. north-western eurasia. 34 17 34380

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Albanians Citizens or residents of albania and ethnic group. 334 0 343
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 78 49 53850
Volodymyr Zelenskyy Sixth and current president of ukraine. 39 41 51767
French Citizens or residents of france. 25 4 908
Olaf Scholz German politician, federal minister of finance and vice chancellor. 16 1 46
Boris Yeltsin Soviet and russian politician, 1st president of russia (1931-2007). 10 1 871
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 9 19 6569
Ban Ki-moon 8th secretary-general of the united nations. 9 1 221
President of the United States Head of state and head of government of the united states of america. 8 4 5765
George Soros Hungarian-american business magnate, investor and philanthropist. 8 1 1939

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.