The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 20 June 2022 and Monday 27 June 2022.

178,761 Misinforming Tweets
New:+137 Trend:-19
75,828 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+324 Trend:+14
3,684 Fact-checks
136 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 20 June 2022 and Monday 27 June 2022, 137 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 224 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from with an increase of +90 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was with a change of +75 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was with a change of -53 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is with a total of 123,780 URL shares and the least popular domain is with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total LeadStories 77 2 1137 LeadStories 19 72 6560 LeadStories 9 9 8885 LeadStories 5 4 2412 4 0 4 3 4 1479 Taiwan FactCheck Center 3 3 3983 The Whistle 2 2 24355 2 1 422 2 1 27

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total 30 0 30 28 50 152 26 36 62 18 0 18 18 0 18 16 8 207 11 10 68 11 0 11 11 0 11 10 0 46

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 136 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from (285 fact-checks) and the least from Verify Sy (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from LeadStories (224) followed by AFP fact checking (190) and (138) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 344 305 144218
United Kingdom Country in western europe. 87 6 30752
Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium Football stadium in ankara. 77 2 1137
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 62 83 22983
Earth Third planet from the sun in the solar system. 41 61 20839
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 32 60 35900
Poland Sovereign state in central europe. 31 8 4983
Donetsk Capital city of donetsk oblast in estern ukraine. 28 40 2033
worldwide Published or operating in multiple or all jurisdictions on earth; special value for “place of publication” (p291) and “operating area” (p2541). 22 83 12889
Americas Landmass comprising the continents of north america and south america. 19 72 6572

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Volodymyr Zelenskyi 6th president of ukraine. 41 29 51678
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 38 29 53464
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 19 72 6560
Olena Zelenska Ukrainian architect and screenwriter. 12 0 343
Americans Citizens or residents of the united states of america. 10 0 115
Marco Rubio United states senator from florida. 10 0 46
Victoria Nuland American diplomat. 10 0 46
Boris Johnson Prime minister of the united kingdom since 2019. 8 0 62
Joe Biden President-elect of the united states, former vice president (2009–2017). 4 5 4149
Donald Trump 45th and current president of the united states. 4 4 1840

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.