The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 06 June 2022 and Monday 13 June 2022.

178,468 Misinforming Tweets
New:+682 Trend:+523
75,194 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+369 Trend:+159
3,684 Fact-checks
136 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 06 June 2022 and Monday 13 June 2022, 682 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 224 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from with an increase of +235 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was with a change of +211 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was with a change of -30 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is with a total of 123,683 URL shares and the least popular domain is with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total Correctiv 192 0 192 144 0 144 104 0 104 81 0 81 Verify SY 32 5 37 Fundacja “Przeciwdziałamy Dezinformacji” 29 4 975 LeadStories 14 29 6469 LeadStories 14 20 8867 LeadStories 11 1 2403 Taiwan FactCheck Center 9 6 3977

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total 74 0 74 26 1 183 25 0 25 23 0 23 21 0 21 16 2 91 16 0 16 15 0 15 13 23 36 7 0 45

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 136 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from (285 fact-checks) and the least from Verify Sy (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from LeadStories (224) followed by AFP fact checking (190) and (138) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 599 162 143569
Earth Third planet from the sun in the solar system. 107 11 20737
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 96 36 22838
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 69 35 35808
Germany Sovereign state in central europe. 49 10 10238
Europe Continent on earth, mainly on the northeastern quadrant, i.e. north-western eurasia. 46 34 34241
worldwide Published or operating in multiple or all jurisdictions on earth; special value for “place of publication” (p291) and “operating area” (p2541). 37 30 12784
Soviet Union Federal socialist state in eastern europe and northern asia (1922–1991). 33 13 8322
Israel Sovereign state in western asia. 33 5 5284
Africa Continent on the earth’s northern and southern hemispheres. 33 5 936

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 54 17 53397
Volodymyr Zelenskyi 6th president of ukraine. 36 33 51608
Joe Biden President-elect of the united states, former vice president (2009–2017). 36 5 4140
Fatih Birol Turkish economist. 23 0 24
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 14 29 6469
Boris Yeltsin Soviet and russian politician, 1st president of russia (1931-2007). 5 3 858
Richard Nixon 37th president of the united states of america (1913-1994). 5 1 1672
Filippa Lentzos Researcher. 5 1 1418
Viktor Yanukovych Ukrainian politician who was the president of ukraine. 4 4 2158
Bill Clinton 42nd president of the united states. 4 3 914

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.