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The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 25 April 2022 and Monday 02 May 2022.

156,830 Misinforming Tweets
New:+1,259 Trend:+60
70,418 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+826 Trend:-527
2,929 Fact-checks
125 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 25 April 2022 and Monday 02 May 2022, 1,259 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 197 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from twitter.com with an increase of +664 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was 24-post.com with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was twitter.com with a change of +202 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was facta.news with a change of -362 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is twitter.com with a total of 108,739 URL shares and the least popular domain is 24-post.com with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://twitter.com/tjournal/status/1518604476566933505 LeadStories twitter.com 454 0 454
https://rumble.com/v10miez-world-premiere-watch-the-water.html LeadStories rumble.com 271 391 6165
https://twitter.com/jcokechukwu/status/1518351056987697157 LeadStories twitter.com 185 27 212
https://ria.ru/20220425/zelenskiy-1785329873.html Stopfake.org ria.ru 143 0 143
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6LQSYmda0Sc LeadStories youtube.com 62 93 8442
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1b-RKDHZOo LeadStories youtube.com 61 43 2251
https://thefauxy.com/pakistan-imposes-economic-sanctions-on-russia-refuses-to-repay-loans Taiwan FactCheck Center thefauxy.com 13 14 3939
https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1254217.shtml StopFake.org globaltimes.cn 12 31 1394
https://unherd.com/2022/03/how-ukrainian-women-will-suffer Maldita.es unherd.com 7 0 935
https://twitter.com/YourAnonNews/status/1508424057770889222 LeadStories twitter.com 6 8 24192

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://factcheck.afp.com/doc.afp.com.328K3Y3 afp.com 112 0 112
https://correctiv.org/faktencheck/2022/04/25/erfundener-mordfall-in-nuernberg-wurde-kein-russischstaemmiger-mann-von-ukrainern-erstochen/ correctiv.org 67 0 67
https://factual.afp.com/doc.afp.com.328X7EU afp.com 61 0 61
https://factual.afp.com/doc.afp.com.328Y8PC afp.com 59 0 59
https://www.stopfake.org/en/fake-zelensky-s-fortune-estimated-at-850-million/ stopfake.org 27 0 27
https://correctiv.org/faktencheck/2022/04/29/manipuliertes-foto-asow-symbole-auf-ostergebaeck-wurden-nachtraeglich-hinzugefuegt/ correctiv.org 25 0 25
https://www.stopfake.org/en/fake-national-guard-order-surrendering-soldiers-to-be-executed/ stopfake.org 20 0 20
https://factual.afp.com/doc.afp.com.32986M7 afp.com 19 0 19
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/mar/18/tulsi-gabbard/tulsi-gabbard-falsely-claims-us-not-so-different-r/ politifact.com 18 4 160
https://factcheck.afp.com/doc.afp.com.328N26Q afp.com 16 0 16

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 125 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from euvsdisinfo.eu (222 fact-checks) and the least from Verificat (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from AFP fact checking (181) followed by LeadStories (154) and Factcheck.ge (98) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 998 1236 140104
worldwide Published or operating in multiple or all jurisdictions on earth; special value for “place of publication” (p291) and “operating area” (p2541). 280 467 12415
Americas Landmass comprising the continents of north america and south america. 271 391 6172
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 222 199 34962
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 203 195 24555
Moscow Capital and most populous city of russia. 182 184 10190
British Virgin Islands British overseas territory in the caribbean. 170 0 170
London Capital and largest city of the united kingdom. 76 16 1019
Düsseldorf Capital city of the german federated state of north rhine-westphalia. 67 0 67
Dnipro River Longest river of ukraine and belarus. 59 2 85

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Volodymyr Zelenskyi 6th president of ukraine. 295 219 51020
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 271 391 6165
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 129 199 56797
Joe Biden President-elect of the united states, former vice president (2009–2017). 128 82 4081
anonymous Term used to describe the unknown creator of a work. 67 0 76
Donald Trump 45th and current president of the united states. 25 25 2039
Michelle Bachelet 34th and 36th president of chile. 21 6 271
Alexei Navalny Russian lawyer, politician and anti-corruption activist. 20 4 181
Jesus Jewish preacher and religious leader, central figure of christianity. 19 33 183
Steven L. Johnson Researcher. 18 4 160

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.