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The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 18 April 2022 and Monday 25 April 2022.

155,571 Misinforming Tweets
New:+1,199 Trend:-7,133
69,592 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+1,353 Trend:-739
2,929 Fact-checks
125 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 18 April 2022 and Monday 25 April 2022, 1,199 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 197 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from twitter.com with an increase of +462 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was 24-post.com with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was facta.news with a change of +330 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was rumble.com with a change of -5,112 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is twitter.com with a total of 108,075 URL shares and the least popular domain is 15min.lt with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://twitter.com/ArmedForcesUkr/status/1516018161023389703 LeadStories twitter.com 400 0 400
https://rumble.com/v10miez-world-premiere-watch-the-water.html LeadStories rumble.com 391 5503 5894
https://tass.ru/politika/14418361 euvsdisinfo.eu tass.ru 96 0 96
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6LQSYmda0Sc LeadStories youtube.com 93 142 8380
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1b-RKDHZOo LeadStories youtube.com 43 63 2190
https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202203/1254217.shtml StopFake.org globaltimes.cn 31 15 1382
https://twitter.com/jcokechukwu/status/1518351056987697157 LeadStories twitter.com 27 0 27
https://ria.ru/20220417/biolaboratorii-1783801453.html Factcheck.ge ria.ru 23 139 162
https://ria.ru/20220419/ukraina-1784261157.html Factcheck.ge ria.ru 22 0 22
https://thefauxy.com/pakistan-imposes-economic-sanctions-on-russia-refuses-to-repay-loans Taiwan FactCheck Center thefauxy.com 14 12 3926

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://facta.news/fuori-contesto/2022/04/22/questo-non-e-il-bunker-sotterraneo-dellacciaieria-azovstal-ma-lillustrazione-di-un-gioco-da-tavolo/ facta.news 358 0 358
https://www.ellinikahoaxes.gr/2022/04/18/photo-with-azov-battalion-member-holding-nazi-flag-is-fake-altered-image/ ellinikahoaxes.gr 96 0 96
https://www.factcheck.org/2022/03/marjorie-taylor-greene-parrots-russian-talking-point-on-ukraine/ factcheck.org 71 4 139
https://factual.afp.com/doc.afp.com.328K2WL afp.com 56 0 56
https://mythdetector.ge/en/disinformation-about-the-existence-of-hidden-nato-bio-laboratory-under-the-azovstal-factory/ mythdetector.ge 40 6 46
https://poligrafo.sapo.pt/fact-check/simbolo-que-figurava-na-camisola-de-zelensky-durante-intervencao-no-parlamento-e-uma-cruz-nazi sapo.pt 31 0 31
https://maldita.es/malditobulo/20220419/explosion-crucero-misiles-uso-moskva/ maldita.es 30 0 30
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/apr/05/tweets/no-nato-allied-land-command-leader-wasnt-captured-/ politifact.com 24 306 865
https://colombiacheck.com/chequeos/esta-foto-no-es-de-una-iglesia-en-ruinas-en-ucrania-sino-de-un-terremoto-en-italia colombiacheck.com 24 0 24
https://www.stopfake.org/en/fake-azov-regiment-attacks-humanitarian-convoy/ stopfake.org 24 0 24

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 125 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from euvsdisinfo.eu (222 fact-checks) and the least from Verificat (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from AFP fact checking (181) followed by LeadStories (154) and Factcheck.ge (98) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 1236 2781 139106
worldwide Published or operating in multiple or all jurisdictions on earth; special value for “place of publication” (p291) and “operating area” (p2541). 467 5813 12135
Americas Landmass comprising the continents of north america and south america. 391 5503 5901
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 199 634 34740
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 195 825 24352
Moscow Capital and most populous city of russia. 184 1942 10008
Europe Continent on earth, mainly on the northeastern quadrant, i.e. north-western eurasia. 158 169 33849
Mariupol City in donetsk oblast in southeastern ukraine. 109 166 1437
Donetsk Capital city of donetsk oblast in estern ukraine. 103 22 1959
Germany Sovereign state in central europe. 102 273 10091

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 391 5503 5894
Volodymyr Zelenskyi 6th president of ukraine. 219 1800 50725
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 199 234 56668
Adolf Hitler Austrian-born german politician, chancellor and führer of germany, leader of the nazi party (1889-1945). 101 0 153
Arsen Pavlov Russian rebel troup leader in donbass. 96 0 96
Sergey Lavrov Russian politician and foreign minister. 93 4 429
Bill Clinton 42nd president of the united states. 86 20 859
Joe Biden President-elect of the united states, former vice president (2009–2017). 82 241 3953
Viktor Yanukovych Ukrainian politician who was the president of ukraine. 76 41 2168
Barack Obama 44th president of the united states. 72 4 540

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.