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The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 11 April 2022 and Monday 18 April 2022.

154,372 Misinforming Tweets
New:+8,332 Trend:-10,307
68,239 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+2,092 Trend:-664
2,929 Fact-checks
125 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 11 April 2022 and Monday 18 April 2022, 8,332 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 195 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from rumble.com with an increase of +5,503 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was 24-post.com with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was rumble.com with a change of +5,503 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was twitter.com with a change of -14,269 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is twitter.com with a total of 107,613 URL shares and the least popular domain is 24-post.com with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://rumble.com/v10miez-world-premiere-watch-the-water.html LeadStories rumble.com 5503 0 5503
https://ria.ru/20220414/kreyser-1783626130.html LeadStories ria.ru 1480 0 1480
https://twitter.com/fratotolo2/status/1513799105398595584 Facta.news twitter.com 403 0 403
https://twitter.com/HenryJP5/status/1515336517773926405 dpa-factchecking.com twitter.com 170 0 170
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6LQSYmda0Sc LeadStories youtube.com 142 2115 8287
https://ria.ru/20220417/biolaboratorii-1783801453.html Factcheck.ge ria.ru 139 0 139
https://ria.ru/20220411/s-300-1782852131.html StopFake.org ria.ru 98 0 98
https://www.facebook.com/100016841896737/posts/1148406602397392 Demagog facebook.com 73 0 73
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X1b-RKDHZOo LeadStories youtube.com 63 302 2147
https://twitter.com/INFORATNIKSRB/status/1514466802381869056 Raskrinkavanje.ba twitter.com 60 0 60

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/apr/05/tweets/no-nato-allied-land-command-leader-wasnt-captured-/ politifact.com 306 535 841
https://www.stopfake.org/en/fake-serial-number-confirms-kramatorsk-train-station-hit-by-ukrainian-tochka-u-missile/ stopfake.org 205 0 205
https://factcheck.afp.com/doc.afp.com.327R8KF afp.com 129 19 148
https://www.open.online/2022/04/13/bbc-attacco-kramatorsk-ucraini-video-falso/ open.online 120 0 120
https://factuel.afp.com/doc.afp.com.32848RC afp.com 119 0 119
https://www.indiatoday.in/fact-check/story/moskva-explosion-video-claims-false-1937965-2022-04-15 indiatoday.in 67 0 67
https://www.stopfake.org/en/international-media-regurgitating-old-fakes-about-the-azov-battalion-and-neo-nazism-in-ukraine/ stopfake.org 64 32 123
https://maldita.es/malditobulo/20220408/maniqui-ucrania-rusia-cadaver-muerto/ maldita.es 52 7 59
https://correctiv.org/faktencheck/2022/04/12/nein-diese-dokumente-belegen-kein-geheimes-biowaffen-programm-in-der-ukraine/ correctiv.org 43 0 43
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/apr/07/facebook-posts/no-zelenskyy-and-soros-are-not-cousins/ politifact.com 40 92 132

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 125 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from euvsdisinfo.eu (222 fact-checks) and the least from Verificat (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from AFP fact checking (181) followed by LeadStories (154) and Factcheck.ge (98) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
worldwide Published or operating in multiple or all jurisdictions on earth; special value for “place of publication” (p291) and “operating area” (p2541). 5813 520 11668
Americas Landmass comprising the continents of north america and south america. 5503 0 5510
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 2781 18476 137870
Moscow Capital and most populous city of russia. 1942 187 9824
Black Sea Sea between europe and asia. 1489 61 1861
Southern Ukraine . 1480 0 1480
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 825 714 24157
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 634 13850 34541
Turkey Sovereign state straddling southeastern europe and western asia. 565 610 29727
Mauritius Island sovereign state in the indian ocean. 405 0 405

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Anthony Fauci American immunologist and head of the u.s. National institute of allergy and infectious diseases. 5503 0 5503
Volodymyr Zelenskyi 6th president of ukraine. 1800 1837 50506
Izumi Nakamitsu United nations official. 405 0 405
Joe Biden President-elect of the united states, former vice president (2009–2017). 241 18 3871
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 234 1511 56469
Bashar al-Assad President of syria. 205 0 820
Igor Kirillov Russian television presenter. 139 0 139
Michelle Bachelet 34th and 36th president of chile. 138 40 244
Vitaliy Klitschko Ukrainian boxer and politician. 135 55 471
George Soros Hungarian-american business magnate, investor and philanthropist. 100 278 1895

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.