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The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 28 March 2022 and Monday 04 April 2022.

19,366 Misinforming Tweets
New:+12 Trend:-14
48,660 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+100 Trend:-811
1,444 Fact-checks
112 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 28 March 2022 and Monday 04 April 2022, 12 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 126 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from afp.com with an increase of +24 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was aap.com.au with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was chequeado.com with a change of +3 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was afp.com with a change of -320 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is afp.com with a total of 19,815 URL shares and the least popular domain is alkhabrpress.com with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://thefauxy.com/pakistan-imposes-economic-sanctions-on-russia-refuses-to-repay-loans/ Taiwan FactCheck Center thefauxy.com 8 13 3620
https://www.anti-spiegel.ru/2022/russland-bombardiert-eine-geburtsklinik-marianna-und-die-neue-brutkastenluege/ CORRECTIV.ORG anti-spiegel.ru 1 6 701
https://tass.ru/politika/12996745 euvsdisinfo.eu tass.ru 1 1 30
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrk2bNnZoTU euvsdisinfo.eu youtube.com 1 0 1605
https://twitter.com/AxlGuidato/status/1503080062496747522 Open.online twitter.com 1 0 582
https://www.simonparkes.org/post/ukrainian-is-a-part-of-russia-meaning-russia-can-enter-at-any-time LeadStories simonparkes.org 0 3 592
https://tass.com/world/1418563 euvsdisinfo.eu tass.com 0 2 77
https://www.paulcraigroberts.org/2022/01/19/if-blinken-doesnt-want-a-russian-invasion-of-ukraine-why-is-he-provoking-one/ euvsdisinfo.eu paulcraigroberts.org 0 1 35
https://twitter.com/Kuduszaade/status/1498609584193347585 Verify SY twitter.com 0 0 2475
https://twitter.com/LatestAnonNews/status/1496696416118398977 BOOM twitter.com 0 0 2076

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/feb/25/tweets/there-are-no-us-run-biolabs-ukraine-contrary-socia/ politifact.com 15 98 1797
https://facta.news/fuori-contesto/2022/03/08/luomo-in-questa-foto-non-e-il-fotoreporter-andrea-rocchelli/ facta.news 13 16 45
https://colombiacheck.com/chequeos/este-video-de-una-nina-reclamando-un-soldado-no-es-del-conflicto-entre-rusia-y-ucrania colombiacheck.com 7 0 27
https://factcheck.afp.com/doc.afp.com.326C94R afp.com 5 53 68
https://www.factcheck.org/2022/03/hunter-biden-left-ukrainian-company-in-2019-contrary-to-ted-nugent-post/ factcheck.org 5 23 122
https://faktencheck.afp.com/doc.afp.com.324N2EX afp.com 5 1 10
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/feb/28/candace-owens/fact-checking-claims-nato-us-broke-agreement-again/ politifact.com 4 47 616
https://facta.news/notizia-falsa/2022/03/01/no-in-ucraina-non-ci-sono-laboratori-biomilitari-gestiti-dagli-stati-uniti/ facta.news 4 2 30
https://www.factcheck.org/2022/03/megachurches-in-u-s-are-supporting-ukraine-relief-contrary-to-social-media-posts/ factcheck.org 3 1 78
https://www.factcheck.org/2022/02/bogus-tweet-spreads-false-account-of-first-american-casualty-in-ukraine/ factcheck.org 3 0 291

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 112 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from euvsdisinfo.eu (154 fact-checks) and the least from Verificat (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from AFP fact checking (138) followed by Fact Crescendo (81) and Check Your Fact (59) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 95 860 49261
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 39 300 8707
Soviet Union Federal socialist state in eastern europe and northern asia (1922–1991). 24 226 6562
Georgia Country in the caucasus. 18 126 2495
Afghanistan Sovereign state situated at the confluence of western, central, and south asia. 16 5 1208
Earth Third planet from the sun in the solar system. 15 156 5386
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 11 76 8897
Europe Continent on earth, mainly on the northeastern quadrant, i.e. north-western eurasia. 8 100 4549
Pakistan Sovereign state in south asia. 8 24 3895
Germany Sovereign state in central europe. 7 160 2901

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 42 396 21035
Volodymyr Zelenskyi 6th president of ukraine. 13 263 11764
Petro Poroshenko Ukrainian businessman and politician. 7 3 516
Americans Citizens or residents of the united states of america. 7 2 40
Ahed Al-Tamimi Palestinian activist. 7 0 164
Joe Biden President-elect of the united states, former vice president (2009–2017). 6 42 1565
Donald Trump 45th and current president of the united states. 6 29 298
Hunter Biden American lawyer, investment advisor, and second son of former vice president joe biden. 6 25 239
Boris Yeltsin Soviet and russian politician, 1st president of russia (1931-2007). 5 49 677
Mikhail Tolstykh Commander of the pro-russian forces. 5 1 10

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.