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The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 07 March 2022 and Monday 14 March 2022.

19,009 Misinforming Tweets
New:+1,633 Trend:-5,765
43,913 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+8,962 Trend:-7,854
1,444 Fact-checks
112 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Provenance

During the period between Monday 07 March 2022 and Monday 14 March 2022, 1,633 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 123 domains identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were from afp.com with an increase of +4,056 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain The domain that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was ahram.org.eg with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain

In relation to the previous week, the domain that saw the biggest relative spread change was open.online with a change of +706 compared to the previous total spread for the same domain whereas the domain that saw the least relative change was thefauxy.com with a change of -3,385 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important domain is afp.com with a total of 17,580 URL shares and the least popular domain is alkhabrpress.com with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Domain importance.

Figure 2: Amount of domains shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://www.anti-spiegel.ru/2022/russland-bombardiert-eine-geburtsklinik-marianna-und-die-neue-brutkastenluege/ CORRECTIV.ORG anti-spiegel.ru 625 0 625
https://twitter.com/AxlGuidato/status/1503080062496747522 Open.online twitter.com 410 0 410
https://www.interfax.ru/russia/827361 euvsdisinfo.eu interfax.ru 179 0 179
https://twitter.com/isabelschayani/status/1501097719733145605 CORRECTIV twitter.com 100 0 100
https://thefauxy.com/pakistan-imposes-economic-sanctions-on-russia-refuses-to-repay-loans/ Taiwan FactCheck Center thefauxy.com 95 3480 3575
https://tass.com/world/1418563 euvsdisinfo.eu tass.com 75 0 75
https://sputniknews.com/20220306/nato-labelled-laptop-with-intelligence-found-at-ukrainian-nationalists-hq-dpr-head-says--1093639199.html euvsdisinfo.eu sputniknews.com 45 59 104
https://www.facebook.com/mariusz.poslednik/posts/5538410829526787 Demagog facebook.com 18 0 18
https://twitter.com/Kuduszaade/status/1498609584193347585 Verify SY twitter.com 14 2457 2471
https://www.simonparkes.org/post/ukrainian-is-a-part-of-russia-meaning-russia-can-enter-at-any-time LeadStories simonparkes.org 10 16 586

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Domain Current Week Previous Week Total
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2022/feb/25/tweets/there-are-no-us-run-biolabs-ukraine-contrary-socia/ politifact.com 976 234 1381
https://www.open.online/2022/03/10/video-ospedale-pediatrico-bombardato-mariupol/ open.online 655 0 655
https://www.factcheck.org/2022/03/social-media-posts-misrepresent-u-s-ukraine-threat-reduction-program/ factcheck.org 393 61 454
https://factuel.afp.com/doc.afp.com.324X2ZF afp.com 363 0 363
https://factchecknederland.afp.com/doc.afp.com.324E64F afp.com 330 9 339
https://factuel.afp.com/doc.afp.com.324G3KA afp.com 267 0 267
https://factcheck.afp.com/doc.afp.com.32478V9 afp.com 247 63 310
https://factual.afp.com/doc.afp.com.324Q3EV afp.com 239 0 239
https://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/1868082/bombardement-hopital-marioupol-propagande-armee-urkainienne-azov-actrie-influenceuse radio-canada.ca 222 0 222
https://factuel.afp.com/doc.afp.com.324G8BG afp.com 218 0 218

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-Checkers and Spreaders Location

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from 112 fact-checking organisations.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from euvsdisinfo.eu (154 fact-checks) and the least from Verificat (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content are from AFP fact checking (138) followed by Fact Crescendo (81) and Check Your Fact (59) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by fact-checkers.

Figure 4: Identified location of users spreading fact-checks and misinformation.

Locations and Mentions

Using automatic entity extraction methods, we identify key locations and persons mention in the fact-checking articles in order to identify what location and person are the most discussed in misinforming content.

The top mentioned locations and persons are listed in Table 3 and Table 4.

Location Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Ukraine Sovereign state in eastern europe. 9363 18915 44595
United States of America Sovereign state in north america. 2635 1879 6594
Russia Sovereign state in eastern europe and northern asia. 2549 4985 8405
Soviet Union Federal socialist state in eastern europe and northern asia (1922–1991). 2150 2561 5675
Earth Third planet from the sun in the solar system. 1658 1536 3856
Moscow Capital and most populous city of russia. 1437 1458 3537
Germany Sovereign state in central europe. 1386 660 2349
Georgia Country in the caucasus. 1307 344 1837
Europe Continent on earth, mainly on the northeastern quadrant, i.e. north-western eurasia. 982 832 4191
France Sovereign state with mainland in western europe and several overseas territories. 855 679 2034

Table 3: Top locations mentioned in misinforming posts.

Person Description Current Week Previous Week Total
Vladimir Putin 2nd and 4th president of russia. 3585 7356 19789
Volodymyr Zelenskyi 6th president of ukraine. 2486 5064 10850
Sergey Lavrov Russian politician and foreign minister. 627 5 649
Joe Biden President-elect of the united states, former vice president (2009–2017). 615 316 1390
Elizabeth Truss British conservative party politician (born 1975). 363 0 363
Petro Poroshenko Ukrainian businessman and politician. 356 108 464
Richard Nixon 37th president of the united states of america (1913-1994). 332 230 562
French Citizens or residents of france. 292 123 415
Filippa Lentzos Researcher. 247 63 310
Nadiya Savchenko Ukrainian politician. 224 0 224

Table 4: Top people mentioned in misinforming posts.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 5: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the methodology page.