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Between Monday 26 April 2021 and Monday 03 May 2021, misinformation about Authorities has increasead whereas misinformation about Conspiracy Theory has reduced.

The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 26 April 2021 and Monday 03 May 2021.

304,624 Misinforming Tweets
New:+479 Trend:-28
142,179 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+1,224 Trend:-103
12,237 Fact-checks
100 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Topics

During the period between Monday 26 April 2021 and Monday 03 May 2021, 479 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 10 topics identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were about Authorities with an increase of +447 compared to the previous total spread for the same topic. The topic that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was Face Mask with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same topic.

The topics used for the analysis are obtained from the COVID-19 specific fact-check alliance database and are defined as follows:

  1. Authorities: Information relating to government or authorities communication and general involvement during the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., crime, government, aid, lockdown).
  2. Causes: Information about the virus causes and outbreaks (e.g., China, animals).
  3. Conspiracy theories: COVID-19-related conspiracy theories (e.g., 5G, biological weapon).
  4. Cures: Information about potential virus cures (e.g., vaccines, hydroxychloroquine, bleach).
  5. Spread: Information relating to the spread of COVID-19 (e.g., travel, animals).
  6. Symptoms: Information relating to symptoms and symptomatic treatments of COVID-19 (e.g., cough, sore throat).
  7. Other: Any topic that does not fit directly the aforementioned categories.

In relation to the previous week, the topic that saw the biggest relative spread change was Other with a change of +154 compared to the previous total spread for the same topic whereas the topic that saw the least relative change was Other with a change of -136 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important topic is Authorities with a total of 123,783 URL shares and the least popular topic is Face Mask with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Topic Importance.

Figure 2: Amount of topic shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Topic Current Week Previous Week Total
https://www.worldometers.info/ Agencia Ocote Authorities 210 164 32202
https://madisonarealymesupportgroup.com/2020/09/30/proof-that-the-pandemic-was-planned-with-purpose/ Newschecker Conspiracy Theory 171 211 1104
https://c19study.com Détecteur de rumeurs Cure 19 53 29142
https://mcusercontent.com/92561d6dedb66a43fe9a6548f/files/bead7203-0798-4ac8-abe2-076208015556/Public_health_emergency_of_international_concert_Geert_Vanden_Bossche.01.pdf Détecteur de rumeurs Vaccine 10 2 465
https://traugott-ickeroth.com/liveticker/ Correctiv Conspiracy Theory 9 3 452
https://youtu.be/Q-MkTdc4fCg Newschecker Authorities 7 6 15
https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6936a5.htm Détecteur de rumeurs Other 6 7 1648
https://vixra.org/pdf/2006.0044v1.pdf Détecteur de rumeurs Spread 5 6 167
https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/lab-made-coronavirus-triggers-debate-34502 LeadStories Conspiracy Theory 4 4 1969
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m7UdNYB2cNU VoxCheck Conspiracy Theory 3 1 28

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Topic Current Week Previous Week Total
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/mar/27/donald-trump/fact-checking-whether-biden-called-trump-xenophobi/ Authorities 120 2 822
https://factcheck.afp.com/video-shows-victims-gas-leak-indian-chemical-plant-2020 Other 53 0 53
https://www.boomlive.in/fact-check/pm-cares-delhi-maharashtra-oxygen-plants-health-covid-19-12937 Other 42 0 42
https://www.factcheck.org/2021/04/scicheck-idaho-doctor-makes-baseless-claims-about-safety-of-covid-19-vaccines/ Vaccine 25 63 88
https://factuel.afp.com/il-est-hautement-improbable-que-les-vaccins-arn-tuent-par-tempete-cytokinique Vaccine 25 5 83
https://www.factcheck.org/2021/04/scicheck-stories-falsely-cite-stanford-study-to-misinform-on-face-masks/ Spread 24 175 199
https://www.boomlive.in/fact-check/covid-19-second-wave-visuals-in-india-lack-of-oxygen-hospital-beds-fake-news-12902 Other 24 3 27
https://factuel.afp.com/il-nexiste-aucune-preuve-que-le-vaccin-contre-le-covid-19-cause-la-mort-de-deux-religieuses-dans-un Vaccine 24 0 24
https://leadstories.com/hoax-alert/2020/05/fact-check-worker-exposes-cov-19-circuit-board-5g-tower.html Other 16 3 134
https://www.thejournal.ie/debunked-pfizer-employee-quotes-mike-yeadon-covid-19-vaccine-5311935-Dec2020/ Conspiracy Theory 11 13 139

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.


The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from the Poynter Coronavirus Fact Alliance. The alliance consists of 100 fact-checking organisation based in 712 countries and covering 48 languages.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from English (6,658 fact-checks) and the least is Finland (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content is in Spanish (3,706) followed by Portuguese (2,243) and French (1,200) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by language.

Figure 4: Amount of fact-checked content per contry.

Determining a direct impact of fact-checking on the spread of misinformation is not easy. However, it is possible to determine how well a particular corrective information is spreading in relation to its corresponding misinformation.

Figure 5 shows how misinformation and fact-checking content has spread in various topics for the last two analysis periods and overall.

Figure 5: Topical misinformation and fact-checks spread.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 6: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the [methodology page](https://fcobservatory.org/faq/).