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Between Monday 22 March 2021 and Monday 29 March 2021, misinformation about Authorities has increasead whereas misinformation about Other has reduced.

The Fact-checking Observatory is an automatic service that collects misinforming content on Twitter using URLs that have been identified as potential misinformation by fact-checking websites. Using this data, the Fact-checking Observatory automatically generates weekly reports that updates the state of misinformation spread of fact-checked misinformation on Twitter.

This analysis is limited to URLs identified by Fact-checking organisations. The collected data only consist of non-blocked Twitter content and may be incomplete.

This report updates the status of misinformation spread between Monday 22 March 2021 and Monday 29 March 2021.

269,137 Misinforming Tweets
New:+339 Trend:-35
129,275 Fact-checking Tweets
New:+713 Trend:+38
10,803 Fact-checks
98 Fact-checking Organisations

Key Content and Topics

During the period between Monday 22 March 2021 and Monday 29 March 2021, 339 new URLs have been identified as potential misinforming content. Out of the 9 topics identified by Fact-checking organisations (Figure 1), most of the new shared URLs were about Authorities with an increase of +429 compared to the previous total spread for the same topic. The topic that saw the least increase in spread compared to the previous period total spread was Face Mask with a change of +0 compared to the previous total spread for the same topic.

The topics used for the analysis are obtained from the COVID-19 specific fact-check alliance database and are defined as follows:

  1. Authorities: Information relating to government or authorities communication and general involvement during the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., crime, government, aid, lockdown).
  2. Causes: Information about the virus causes and outbreaks (e.g., China, animals).
  3. Conspiracy theories: COVID-19-related conspiracy theories (e.g., 5G, biological weapon).
  4. Cures: Information about potential virus cures (e.g., vaccines, hydroxychloroquine, bleach).
  5. Spread: Information relating to the spread of COVID-19 (e.g., travel, animals).
  6. Symptoms: Information relating to symptoms and symptomatic treatments of COVID-19 (e.g., cough, sore throat).
  7. Other: Any topic that does not fit directly the aforementioned categories.

In relation to the previous week, the topic that saw the biggest relative spread change was Other with a change of +14 compared to the previous total spread for the same topic whereas the topic that saw the least relative change was Other with a change of -16 compared to the previous period.

The all time most important topic is Authorities with a total of 120,866 URL shares and the least popular topic is Face Mask with 1 shares (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Topic Importance.

Figure 2: Amount of topic shares per week.

The top misinforming content and fact-checking articles shared since the last report are listed in Table 1 and Table 2.

Misinforming URL Fact-check URL Topic Current Week Previous Week Total
https://www.worldometers.info/ Agencia Ocote Authorities 221 198 31339
https://www.frontliner.com.br/oms-condena-lockdown-nao-salva-vidas-e-torna-os-pobres-muito-mais-pobres/ Estadão Verifica Other 62 103 832
https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6936a5.htm Détecteur de rumeurs Other 9 12 1620
https://www.foxnews.com/politics/coronavirus-wuhan-lab-china-compete-us-sources FactCheck Georgia Other 9 0 5074
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_AyuhbnPOI Faktograf Other 8 2 3768
https://traugott-ickeroth.com/liveticker/ Correctiv Conspiracy Theory 6 0 418
https://plataforma.quieroauditoriaenergetica.org/blog/14-categoria-blog-1/480-coronavirus-exosoma Newtral.es Spread 3 0 158
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y8SBdwzeg84 VoxCheck Conspiracy Theory 3 0 116
http://dilyana.bg/project-g-2101-pentagon-biolab-discovered-mers-and-sars-like-coronaviruses-in-bats/ Myth Detector Conspiracy Theory 2 3 109
https://web.archive.org/web/20200810113311/https://foroparalapazenelmediterraneo.es/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/200805-Informe-decano-de-colegio-Biologos-Pais-Vasco.pdf Bolivia Verifica Conspiracy Theory 2 0 14

Table 1: Top misinforming content.

Fact-check URL Topic Current Week Previous Week Total
https://piaui.folha.uol.com.br/lupa/2020/06/19/verificamos-pandemia-do-medo-c-s-lewis/ Other 38 0 49
https://piaui.folha.uol.com.br/lupa/2020/07/01/verificamos-stf-bolsonaro-covid/ Authorities 23 45 949
https://politica.estadao.com.br/blogs/estadao-verifica/para-atacar-lockdown-blog-tira-de-contexto-entrevista-de-representante-da-oms/ Other 23 22 110
https://www.factcheck.org/2021/02/biden-hasnt-reduced-covid-19-testing-at-the-border/ Authorities 17 46 169
https://correctiv.org/faktencheck/2020/12/03/nein-waehrend-der-pandemie-wurden-nicht-nonstop-intensivbetten-abgebaut/ Conspiracy Theory 17 1 43
https://www.aosfatos.org/noticias/video-em-que-secretario-de-saude-da-bahia-libera-uso-de-cloroquina-e-de-abril-nao-atual/ Authorities 17 0 33
https://politica.estadao.com.br/blogs/estadao-verifica/frase-de-enviado-da-oms-e-retirada-de-contexto-para-sugerir-que-entidade-condena-lockdown/ Authorities 16 12 158
https://factcheck.afp.com/false-claim-covid-19-not-real-misattributed-us-professor Authorities 16 2 28
https://correctiv.org/faktencheck/2020/12/23/nein-abstrichstaebchen-von-corona-schnelltests-sind-nicht-verseucht/ Conspiracy Theory 14 0 29
https://factcheck.afp.com/pfizers-role-operation-warp-speed-misconstrued-online Authorities 12 4 70

Table 2: Top fact-checked content.

Fact-checking

The data used for creating the Twitter dataset is obtained from the Poynter Coronavirus Fact Alliance. The alliance consists of 98 fact-checking organisation based in 635 countries and covering 46 languages.

The largest amount of fact-checked content comes from English (6,130 fact-checks) and the least is Finland (1 fact-checks). Most fact-checked content is in Spanish (3,367) followed by Portuguese (1,998) and French (963) (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Amount of fact-checks by language.

Figure 4: Amount of fact-checked content per contry.

Determining a direct impact of fact-checking on the spread of misinformation is not easy. However, it is possible to determine how well a particular corrective information is spreading in relation to its corresponding misinformation.

Figure 5 shows how misinformation and fact-checking content has spread in various topics for the last two analysis periods and overall.

Figure 5: Topical misinformation and fact-checks spread.

Demographic Impact

Using automatic methods, Twitter account demographics are extracted for user age, gender and account type (i.e., identify if an account belong to an individual or organisation).

Figure 6 displays how misinformation and fact-checks are spread by different demographics.

Figure 6: Misinformation and Fact-check spread for different demographics. Top: Gender, Center: Age group, Bottom: Account type.

Data Collection and Methodology

The full methodology and information about the limitation and dataset used for this analysis can be accessed in the [methodology page](https://fcobservatory.org/faq/).